The weapon proficiencies are:
Archery (Humans and Elves)
The auxiliary skills to the proficiencies are Anatomy, Tactics, and Lumberjacking.
Weapon proficiencies serve two main purposes. First it determines how well you attack and defend with the current weapon in your hand. If you're holding a sword, higher swordsmanship skill means you have a higher chance of hitting your target, and also a higher chance of avoiding an attacker's hit.
Second, you need weapon proficiencies to be able to use a weapon's special abilities.
To a lesser degree, higher skill levels increase the damage produced with a weapon. This is where tactics and anatomy come into play as well, increasing damage. If you're using any type of two-handed axe (basically any axe except a war axe), having the lumberjacking skill also increases your weapon damage.
Weapon proficiencies are probably the easiest skills to train. You have a chance to gain each time you swing a weapon, so ues the fastest weapon of each type that you can find and attack something. Guildmates or pets are good for this. The fastest weapons are:
Archery - Repeating Crossbow
Fencing - Dagger
Mace Fighting - Tessen
Swordsmanship - Bokuto
Throwing - Boomerang
Wrestling - Fists
Additional Information about Throwing
Throwing weapons are ranged weapons, but unlike bows, the effectiveness of the weapon depends on the exact range.
If you are in melee range of your combatant, the throwing weapon is used as a melee weapon. There is a large penalty to hit chance, but this penalty is reduced by having high dexterity and swordsmanship skill.
If you are in throwing range but still very close to your target, you suffer a moderate penalty to hit chance.
If you are very far from your target - close or at the maximum range - you will not do as much damage as you would at closer range.
The range listed on each weapon is the standard maximum range. The actual range can be higher than standard for players with high strength, up to a maximum range increase of 3 tiles.
If you are wearing a shield, you suffer a penalty to both your hit chance and defense chance. This penalty is somewhat reduced by having the parrying skill.